1, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 12, 14B. Kuykendall (personal communication, March 27, 2020).
2, 11, 16L. Steele (personal communication, April 27, 2020).
4, 15, 18D. Rees (personal communication, March 12, 2020).
9, 13, 17, 19M. Davis (personal communication, April 25, 2020).
This project is a case study and the first phase of a longer-term exploration and investigation of
the Pictures of the Year competition archives, including data about photographs entered, jurors and
winners. Phase one digs into the data made available by the University of Missouri and the Pictures
of the Year competition to understand the representation of women and men within the archives
between 1984 and 2004.
Why 1984 to 2004? This timeframe was a period of immense change for the competition, the publishing
industry and systems surrounding photojournalism. It was a time when Google was in its nascency and
before social media mushroomed. It was also a time of seismic evolution for photojournalism. Women
made significant inroads during this time.
The data for Still a Man's World was provided on an external hard drive by the Director of
Pictures of the Year competition. It consisted of several Excel workbooks with multiple sheets and
thousands of low-resolution jpg image files. Many of the image files were scans from prints from the
earlier years of the competition; others are a combination of digital files stripped of metadata or
with metadata intact. Not all variables had recorded data and a significant portion of the data was
either missing or unknown. Photographer names, organization names, and awards were not standardized
and were manually cleaned using pivot tables to confirm counts.
Photographer names and gender if not included in the original dataset were sourced from Google
searches through articles, obituaries, and library archives. If a name or gender could not be
confirmed, the data was recorded as "NA" or "Unknown". To confirm the spelling of photographer
names, the same process was completed. Newspaper names were cross-checked using a
combination of Google searches, Wikipedia, and the United
States Newspaper Listing website. The most recent newspaper title is used and previous
titles due to mergers and buyouts were folded in to the current title.
Cleaning data was processed using Excel through multple functions and built-in features.
image links were gathered using R. All data was merged to a master file, analyzed using pivot
tables, and filtered as needed.
Visual exploration of the data was accomplished using multiple web-based tools: Flourish, DataWrapper,
RawGraphs, and Data Illustrator. The use of Datylon was also attempted. All
charts in the final version were made using D3.js except for the small multiples chart (Gender
breakdown in the Top 25 Publishing Outlets).
Learn more about my process here (Coming soon).
- A Brief History of POY. Poy.org. https://www.poy.org/history.html.
- Barnicoat, B., & Woolf, N. (2009). 2000 to 2009: Reviews of the decade. The Guardian.
- Chapnick, H. (2006). Truth needs no ally. Univ. of Missouri Pr.
- Good, J., & Lowe, P. (2017). Understanding photojournalism (1st ed.). Bloomsbury.
- Hadland, A., & Barnett, C. (2018). The gender crisis in professional photojournalism: demise of
the female gaze?. Journalism Studies, 19(13), 2011-2020.
- Littau, J. (2019). The Crisis Facing American Journalism Did Not Start With the
- Mortensen, T. M., & Gade, P. J. (2018). Does photojournalism matter? News image content and
presentation in the Middletown (NY) Times Herald-Record before and after layoffs of the
photojournalism staff. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 95(4), 990-1010.
- Vitova, D. (2019). Why Female Photographers Still Mimic the Male Gaze. Medium.
- Winslow, D. (2013). Times Herald-Record Lays Off Four NPPA Photographers. NPPA.
Photography: Unless otherwise indicated, photographs presented are copyright ©
photographers. Competition photographs were
provided courtesy of the Pictures of the Year competition, Donald W. Reynolds Journalism Institute,
University of Missouri. Please contact Pictures of the Year about
the archive and for permissions
Design, Development & Writing: Deb
POYi directors, Bill Kuykendall, David Rees, and Lynden
Steele, Thank you for your time in answering
so many of my questions and giving context to the data. Lynden, I'm looking forward to working with
you on future iterations.
My advisors, Alberto Cairo and Professor Barbara Millet for
accepting nothing less than excellence from me. It has been such a privilege learning from both of
you. I finally got a good dose of academic rigor and I’m a better designer for it.
Professor Clay Ewing. Immense gratitude for tough questions and creating an
environment for open,
honest communication, healthy debate and discourse.
Lenny Martinez, thank you for your patience and taking gobs of time to explain the
Zeven Rodriguez, Qinyu Ding, and Maria Aguilar.
Immense gratitude for enlightening me about how
programming demands doggedness and frequent use of console.log.
Kim Grinfeder, The universe has a great way of connecting you with people you need.
One email and the decision was made. The IM program has changed my life and ideas about technology.
Thank you x a million.
Data librarians, Cameron Riopelle and Abe Parrish for the
experience and foresight to know my eyes
were bigger than my stomach.
Professors Lindsay Grace and Lien Tran and Dr.
Chuan. While you may not have been directly involved with this project, your impact on
my thinking as a designer is present and lasting. Thank you for the many emails and conversations
outside of class.
Last but not least, my 2020 cohort, we arrived together but we leave and graduate at
due to unprecedented circumstances. Thank you for your collective creativity, perspectives, sharp
especially the laughter. Qinyu, Maria, Mackenzie, Manouj, Alyssa and
Extra Special Thanks
My dear friends, Harriet and Jen. Thank you for being the Kleenex for my tears,
holding the punching
bag when needed, and your grounded insights about people and life.
To my family (Dad, Mom, Peter, Phil, Jen, Joy, Holly, David, Grace and Ben), my
gratitude for each of
you in my life makes my heart swell with all the feels. Thanks for the gifs,
texts, hugs and emails cheering me on and lifting me up out of some dark swamps.
My husband, Mike Davis, thank you for being my true partner-in-crime, for
encouraging me to wander a bit to discover a
new path so we
can shape our future, for always finding three words to my five, and most of all, for being the
Earth to my Fire.
This project was completed in partial fulfillment for a Master of Fine Arts in Interactive Media
degree at the University of Miami, School of Communication, Department of Interactive Media.